# ITR: Information Theoretic Secure Hyper-Encryption and Protocols (NSF CNS-0205423)

2006
Vadhan, Salil. “An unconditional study of computational zero knowledge.” SIAM Journal on Computing: Special Issue on Randomness and Complexity 36, no. 4 (2006): 1160-1214. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Version History: Extended abstract in FOCS '04.

We prove a number of general theorems about $$\mathbf{ZK}$$, the class of problems possessing (computational) zero-knowledge proofs. Our results are unconditional, in contrast to most previous works on $$\mathbf{ZK}$$, which rely on the assumption that one-way functions exist. We establish several new characterizations of $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ and use these characterizations to prove results such as the following:

1. Honest-verifier $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ equals general $$\mathbf{ZK}$$.
2. Public-coin $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ equals private-coin $$\mathbf{ZK}$$.
3. $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ is closed under union.
4. $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ with imperfect completeness equals $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ with perfect completeness.
5. Any problem in $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ $$\cap$$ $$\mathbf{NP}$$ can be proven in computational zero knowledge by a $$\mathbf{BPP^{NP}}$$prover.
6. $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ with black-box simulators equals $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ with general, non–black-box simulators.

The above equalities refer to the resulting class of problems (and do not necessarily preserve other efficiency measures such as round complexity). Our approach is to combine the conditional techniques previously used in the study of $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ with the unconditional techniques developed in the study of $$\mathbf{SZK}$$, the class of problems possessing statistical zero-knowledge proofs. To enable this combination, we prove that every problem in $$\mathbf{ZK}$$ can be decomposed into a problem in $$\mathbf{SZK}$$ together with a set of instances from which a one-way function can be constructed.

Micciancio, Daniele, Shien Jin Ong, Amit Sahai, and Salil Vadhan. “Concurrent zero knowledge without complexity assumptions.” In S. Halevi and T. Rabin, eds., Proceedings of the Third Theory of Cryptography Conference (TCC '06), 3876:1-20. New York, NY, USA: Springer Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2006. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Version History. Full version available at https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il//eccc-reports/2005/TR05-093/ (Attached as ECCC2005).

We provide unconditional constructions of concurrent statistical zero-knowledge proofs for a variety of non-trivial problems (not known to have probabilistic polynomial-time algorithms). The problems include Graph Isomorphism, Graph Nonisomorphism, Quadratic Residuosity, Quadratic Nonresiduosity, a restricted version of Statistical Difference, and approximate versions of the ($$\mathsf{coNP}$$ forms of the) Shortest Vector Problem and Closest Vector Problem in lattices. For some of the problems, such as Graph Isomorphism and Quadratic Residuosity, the proof systems have provers that can be implemented in polynomial time (given an $$\mathsf{NP}$$ witness) and have $$\tilde{O}(\log n)$$ rounds, which is known to be essentially optimal for black-box simulation. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first constructions of concurrent zero-knowledge proofs in the plain, asynchronous model (i.e., without setup or timing assumptions) that do not require complexity assumptions (such as the existence of one-way functions).

Nguyen, Minh, and Salil Vadhan. “Zero knowledge with efficient provers.” In Proceedings of the 38th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC ‘06), 287-295. ACM, 2006. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We prove that every problem in NP that has a zero-knowledge proof also has a zero-knowledge proof where the prover can be implemented in probabilistic polynomial time given an NP witness. Moreover, if the original proof system is statistical zero knowledge, so is the resulting efficient-prover proof system. An equivalence of zero knowledge and efficient-prover zero knowledge was previously known only under the assumption that one-way functions exist (whereas our result is unconditional), and no such equivalence was known for statistical zero knowledge. Our results allow us to translate the many general results and characterizations known for zero knowledge with inefficient provers to zero knowledge with efficient provers.